The influence of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) for appetite, eating and weight


  • Hiroshi Bando Medical Research / Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan; Integrative Medicine Japan (IMJ), Shikoku Island Division, Tokushima, Japan; Japan Low Carbohydrate Diet Promotion Association, (JLCDPA), Kyoto, Japan


Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1), GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), blood brain barrier (BBB), Semaglutide, weight reduction


For humans, eating control is crucial. When metabolic homeostasis can be maintained, feeding function involves the hypothalamus and brain stem. When food intake exceeds metabolic homeostasis, reward system is involved such as dopamine neurons from the ventral tegmental area, the nucleus accumbens, and limbic system and to the neocortex. Physiological effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) include improving glucose metabolism, delaying gastric emptying, and suppressing appetite. GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) is supposed to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) and act on the central nervous system (CNS), associated with weight reduction effect, delaying gastric emptying via the vagus nerve system.


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